U.S. Electronics Firm Fined $8 Million For Export Violations
By Amy Svitak
Source: Aviation Week & Space Technology
September 16, 2013
Before changes to U.S. arms export regulations in the late 1990s, Chinese Long March rockets lofted commercial satellites built by non-Chinese companies at a rate of two or three per year.
By 2000, the number had dropped to zero following the 1995 launch-pad explosion of a Long March 2E and its payload—a Hughes-built HS-601 communications satellite—a mishap that U.S. lawmakers said exposed Chinese engineers to American space technology. By 1998, Congress shifted commercial satcoms and related components to the U.S. Munitions List, subjecting them to U.S. International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) and effectively barring their launch on Chinese rockets.