Germany operates its five-satellite SAR-Lupe constellation and has begun studies of a second-generation system for its military forces. The German government also invests in a civil radar satellite system comprised of two spacecraft, TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X, and has agreed to make a further investment in a TanDEM-X successor.
Spain, which has also been a minority shareholder in France's Helios system for data rights, has determined it needs more, as well. Madrid is building its own optical and radar satellites for civil and defense use.
In addition to the Israeli Opsat satellite, Italy is moving forward on a second-generation Cosmo-SkyMed constellation that Saggese says will cost €500-600 million.
Having failed to coordinate their space-based surveillance satellite infrastructure, European governments had hoped to create a ground infrastructure capable of accessing different satellites under a program known as the Multi-national Space Based Imaging System for Surveillance, Reconnaissance and Observation (Musis).
Musis has been dead in the water for some time, and among the 12 European nations that are members of the Organization for Joint Armament Cooperation, only France and Italy have committed funds to development.